The IPCC says: Limiting global warming will require big changes in energy, industry, transport and agriculture. We need a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use, widespread electrification, improved energy efficiency, and use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen. Since 2010, the costs of solar and wind energy, and batteries have decreased by up to 85%. An increasing range of policies and laws have enhanced energy efficiency, reduced rates of deforestation and accelerated the deployment of renewable energy.
Reducing emissions in industry will involve using materials more efficiently, reusing and recycling products and minimising waste. Industry accounts for about a quarter of global emissions. Achieving net zero will be challenging and will require new production processes, low/zero emissions electricity, hydrogen, and, where necessary, carbon capture and storage.
Agriculture, forestry, and other land use can provide large-scale emissions reductions and also remove and store carbon dioxide at scale. However, land cannot compensate for delayed emissions reductions in other sectors. Changes in land use practices can benefit biodiversity, help us adapt to climate change, and secure livelihoods, food and water, and wood supplies.